Let’s get going! The very first thing we’re going to do is create a ‘multiboot header’. What’s that, you ask? Well, to explain it, let’s take a small step back and talk about how a computer boots up.

One of the amazing and terrible things about the x86 architecture is that it’s maintained backwards compatibility throughout the years. This has been a competitive advantage, but it’s also meant that the boot process is largely a pile of hacks. Each time a new iteration comes out, a new step gets added to the process. That’s right, when your fancy new computer starts up, it thinks it’s an 8086 from 1976. And then, through a succession of steps, we transition through more and more modern architectures until we end at the latest and greatest.

The first mode is called ‘real mode’. This is a 16 bit mode that the original x86 chips used. The second is ‘protected mode’. This 32 bit mode adds new things on top of real mode. It’s called ‘protected’ because real mode sort of let you do whatever you wanted, even if it was a bad idea. Protected mode was the first time that the hardware enabled certain kinds of protections that allow us to exercise more control around such things as RAM. We’ll talk more about those details later.

The final mode is called ‘long mode’, and it’s 64 bits.

By the way...

Well, that’s actually a lie: there’s two. Initially, you’re not in long mode, you’re in ‘compatibility mode’. You see, when the industry was undergoing the transition from 32 to 64 bits, there were two options: the first was Intel’s Itanium 64-bit architecture. It did away with all of the stuff I just told you about. But that meant that programs had to be completely recompiled from scratch for the new chips. Intel’s big competitor, AMD, saw an opportunity here, and released a new set of chips called amd64. These chips were backwards compatible, and so you could run both 32 and 64 bit programs on them. Itanium wasn’t compelling enough to make the pain worth it, and so Intel released new chips that were compatible with amd64. The resulting architecture was then called x86_64, the one we’re using today. The moral of the story? Intel tried to save you from all of the stuff we’re about to do, but they failed. So we have to do it.

So that’s the task ahead of us: make the jump up the ladder and get to long mode. We can do it! Let’s talk more details.

## Firmware and the BIOS

So let's begin by turning the power to our computer on.

When we press the power button, electricity starts running, and a special piece of software, known as the BIOS in Intel land, automatically runs.

With the BIOS we're already in the land of software, but unlike software that you may be used to writing, the BIOS comes bundled with its computer and is located in read-only memory (ROM). While changing or updating stuff in ROM is possible, it's not something you can do by invoking your favorite package manager or by downloading something from some website. In fact some ROM is literally hardwired into the computer and cannot be changed without physically swapping it out. This makes sense here. The BIOS and the computer are lifetime partners. Their existence doesn't make much sense without each other.

One of the first things the BIOS does is run a ‘POST’ or power-on self-test which checks for the availability and integrity of all the pieces of hardware that the computer needs including the BIOS itself, CPU registers, RAM, etc. If you've ever heard a computer beeping at you as it boots up, that's the POST reporting its findings.

Assuming no problems are found, the BIOS starts the real booting process.

By the way...

For a while now most commercial computer manufacturers have hidden their BIOS booting process behind some sort of splash screen. It's usually possible to see the BIOS' logs by pressing some collection of keys when your computer is starting up.

The BIOS also has a menu where you can see information about the computer like CPU and memory specs and all the hardware the BIOS detected like hard drives and CD and DVD drives. Typically this menu is accessed by pressing some other weird collection of keyboard keys while the computer is attempting to boot.

The BIOS automatically finds a ‘bootable drive’ by looking in certain pre-determined places like the computer's hard drive and CD and DVD drives. A drive is ‘bootable’ if it contains software that can finish the booting process. In the BIOS menu you can usually change in what order the BIOS looks for bootable drives or tell it to boot from a specific drive.

The BIOS knows it's found a bootable drive by looking at the first few kilobytes of the drive and looking for some magical numbers set in that drive's memory. This won't be the last time some magical numbers or hacky sounding things are used on our way to building an OS. Such is life at such a low level...

When the BIOS has found its bootable drive, it loads part of the drive into memory and transfers execution to it. With this process, we move away from what comes dictated by the computer manufacturer and move ever closer to getting our OS running.

The part of our bootable drive that gets executed is called a ‘bootloader’, since it loads things at boot time. The bootloader’s job is to take our kernel, put it into memory, and then transition control to it.

Some people start their operating systems journey by writing a bootloader. We will not be doing that. Frankly, this whole startup process is more of an exercise in reading manuals and understanding the history of esoteric hardware than it is anything else. That stuff may interest you, and maybe someday we’ll come back and write a bootloader of our own.

In the interest of actually getting around to implementing a kernel, instead, we’ll use an existing bootloader: GRUB.

## GRUB and Multiboot

GRUB stands for ‘grand unified bootloader’, and it’s a common one for GNU/Linux systems. GRUB implements a specification called Multiboot, which is a set of conventions for how a kernel should get loaded into memory. By following the Multiboot specification, we can let GRUB load our kernel.

The way that we do this is through a ‘header’. We’ll put some information in a format that multiboot specifies right at the start of our kernel. GRUB will read this information, and follow it to do the right thing.

One other advantage of using GRUB: it will handle the transition from real mode to protected mode for us, skipping the first step. We don’t even need to know anything about all of that old stuff. If you’re curious about the kinds of things you would have needed to know, put “A20 line” into your favorite search engine, and get ready to cry yourself to sleep.

## Writing our own Multiboot header

I said we were gonna get to the code, and then I went on about more history. Sorry about that! It’s code time for real! Inside your project directory, make a new file called multiboot_header.asm, and open it in your favorite editor. I use vim, but you should feel free to use anything you’d like.

$touch multiboot_header.asm$ vim multiboot_header.asm


Two notes about this: first of all, we’re just making this source file in the top level. Don’t worry, we’ll clean house later. Remember: we’re going to build stuff, and then abstract it afterwards. It’s easier to start with a mess and clean it up than it is to try to get it perfect on the first try.

Second, this is a .asm file, which is short for ‘assembly’. That’s right, we’re going to write some assembly code here. Don’t worry! It’s not super hard.

Have you ever watched Rich Hickey’s talk “Simple vs. Easy”? It’s a wonderful talk. In it, he draws a distinction between these two words, which are commonly used as synonyms.

TODO https://github.com/intermezzOS/book/issues/27

Assembly coding is simple, but that doesn’t mean that it’s easy. We’ll be doing a little bit of assembly programming to build our operating system, but we don’t need to know that much. It is completely learnable, even for someone coming from a high-level language. You might need to practice a bit, and take it slow, but I believe in you. You’ve got this.

### The Magic Number

Our first assembly file will be almost entirely data, not code. Here’s the first line:

dd 0xe85250d6 ; magic number


Ugh! Gibberish! Let’s start with the semicolon (;). It’s a comment, that lasts until the end of the line. This particular comment says ‘magic number’. As we said, you’ll be seeing a lot of magic numbers in your operating system work. The idea of a magic number is that it’s completely and utterly arbitrary. It doesn’t mean anything. It’s just magic. The very first thing that the multiboot specification requires is that we have the magic number 0xe85250d6 right at the start.

By the way...

Wondering how a number can have letters inside of it? 0xe85250d6 is written in hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal is an example of a "numeral system" which is a fancy term for a system for conveying numbers. The numeral system you're probably most familiar with is the decimal system which conveys numbers using a combination of the symbols 0 - 9. Hexadecimal on the other hand uses a combination of 16 symbols: 0 - 9 and a - f. Along with its fellow numeral system, binary, hexadecimal is used a lot in low level programming. In order to tell if a number is written in hexadecimal, you may be tempted to look for the use of letters in the number, but a more surefire way is to look for a leading 0x. While 100 isn't a hexadecimal number, 0x100 is. To learn more about hexadecimal and binary check this out.

What’s the value in having an arbitrary number there? Well, it’s a kind of safeguard against bad things happening. This is one of the ways in which we can check that we actually have a real multiboot header. If it doesn’t have the magic number, something has gone wrong, and we can throw an error.

I have no idea why it’s 0xe85250d6, and I don’t need to care. It just is.

Finally, the dd. It’s short for ‘define double word’. It declares that we’re going to stick some 32-bit data at this location. Remember, when x86 first started, it was a 16-bit architecture set. That meant that the amount of data that could be held in a CPU register (or one ‘word’ as it's commonly known) was 16 bits. To transition to a 32-bit architecture without losing backwards compatibility, x86 got the concept of a ‘double word’ or double 16 bits.

### The mode code

Okay, time to add a second line:

dd 0xe85250d6 ; magic number
dd 0          ; protected mode code


This is another form of magic number. We want to boot into protected mode, and so we put a zero here, using dd again. If we wanted GRUB to do something else, we could look up another code, but this is the one that we want.

The next thing that’s required is a header length. We could use dd and count out exactly how many bytes that our header is, but there’s two reasons why we’re not doing that:

1. Computers should do math, not people.
2. We’re going to add more stuff, and we’d have to recalculate this number each time. Or wait until the end and come back. See #1.

Here’s what this looks like:

header_start:
dd 0xe85250d6                ; magic number
dd 0                         ; protected mode code


You don’t have to align the comments if you don’t want to. I usually don’t, but it looks nice and after we’re done with this file, we’re not going to mess with it again, so we won’t be constantly re-aligning them in the future.

The header_start: and header_end: things are called ‘labels’. Labels let us use a name to refer to a particular part of our code. Labels also refer to the memory occupied by the data and code which directly follows it. So in our code above the label header_start points directly to the memory at the very beginning of our magic number and thus to the very beginning of our header.

Our third dd line uses those two labels to do some math: the header length is the value of header_end minus the value of header_start. Because header_start and header_end are just the addresses of places in memory, we can simply subtract to get the distance between those two addresses. When we compile this assembly code, the assembler will do this calculation for us. No need to figure out how many bytes there are by hand. Awesome.

You’ll also notice that I indented the dd statements. Usually, labels go in the first column, and you indent actual instructions. How much you indent is up to you; it’s a pretty flexible format.

### The Checksum

The fourth field multiboot requires is a ‘checksum’. The idea is that we sum up some numbers, and then use that number to check that they’re all what we expected things to be. It’s similar to a hash, in this sense: it lets us and GRUB double-check that everything is accurate.

Here’s the checksum:

header_start:
dd 0xe85250d6                ; magic number
dd 0                         ; protected mode code

; checksum


Again, we’ll use math to let the computer calculate the sum for us. We add up the magic number, the mode code, and the header length, and then subtract it from a big number. dd then puts that value into this spot in our file.

By the way...

You might wonder why we're subtracting these values from 0x100000000. To answer this we can look at what the multiboot spec says about the checksum value in the header:

The field checksum is a 32-bit unsigned value which, when added to the other magic fields (i.e. magic, architecture and header_length), must have a 32-bit unsigned sum of zero.

In other words:

checksum + magic_number + architecture + header_length = 0

We could try and "solve for" checksum like so:

checksum = -(magic_number + architecture + header_length)

But here's where it gets weird. Computers don't have an innate concept of negative numbers. Normally we get around this by using "signed integers", which is something we cover in an appendix. The point is we have an unsigned integer here, which means we're limited to representing only positive numbers. This means we can't literally represent -(magic_number + architecture + header_length) in our field.

If you look closely at the spec you'll notice it's strangely worded: it's asking for a value that when added other values has a sum of zero. It's worded this way because integers have a limit to the size of numbers they can represent, and when you go over that size, the values wrap back around to zero. So 0xFFFFFFFF + 1 is.... 0x00000000. This is a hardware limitation: technically it's doing the addition correctly, giving us the 33-bit value 0x100000000, but we only have 32 bits to store things in so it can't actually tell us about that 1 in the most significant digit position! We're left with the rest of the digits, which spell out zero.

So what we can do here is "trick" the computer into giving us zero when we do the addition. Imagine for the sake of argument that magic_number + architecture + header_length somehow works out to be 0xFFFFFFFE. The number we'd add to that in order to make 0 would be 0x00000002. This is 0x100000000-0xFFFFFFFE, because 0x100000000 technically maps to 0 when we wrap around. So we replace 0xFFFFFFFE in our contrived example here with magic_number + architecture + header_length. This gives us: dd 0x100000000 - (0xe85250d6 + 0 + (header_end - header_start))

### Ending tag

After the checksum you can list a series of “tags”, which is a way for the OS to tell the bootloader to do some extra things before handing control over to the OS, or to give the OS some extra information once started. We donʼt need any of that yet, though, so we just need to include the required “end tag”, which looks like this:

header_start:
dd 0xe85250d6                ; magic number
dd 0                         ; protected mode code

; checksum

; required end tag
dw 0    ; type
dw 0    ; flags
dd 8    ; size


Here we use dw to define a ‘word’ instead of just data. Remember a ‘word’ is 16 bits or 2 bytes on the x86_64 architecture. The multiboot specification demands that this be exactly a word. You’ll find that this is super common in operating systems: the exact size and amount of everything matters. It’s just a side-effect of working at a low level.

### The Section

We have one last thing to do: add a ‘section’ annotation. We’ll talk more about sections later, so for now, just put what I tell you at the top of the file.

Here’s the final file:

section .multiboot_header
dd 0xe85250d6                ; magic number
dd 0                         ; protected mode code

; checksum

; required end tag
dw 0    ; type
dw 0    ; flags
dd 8    ; size


That’s it! Congrats, you’ve written a multiboot compliant header. It’s a lot of esoterica, but it’s pretty straightforward once you’ve seen it a few times.

## Assembling with nasm

We can’t use this file directly, we need to turn it into binary. We can use a program called an ‘assembler’ to ‘assemble’ our assembly code into binary code. It’s very similar to using a ‘compiler’ to ‘compile’ our source code into binary. But when it’s assembly, people often use the more specific name.

We will be using an assembler called nasm to do this. You should invoke nasm like this:

\$ nasm -f elf64 multiboot_header.asm


The -f elf64 says that we want to output a file with the type elf64. ELF is a particular executable format that’s used by various UNIX systems, and we’ll be using it too. The executable format just specifies how exactly the bits will be laid out in the file. For example, will there be a magic number at the beginning of the file for easier error checking? Or where in the file do we specify whether our code and data is in a 32-bit or 64-bit format? There are other formats, but ELF is pretty good.

After you run this command, you should see a multiboot_header.o file in the same directory. This is our ‘object file’, hence the .o. Don't let the word ‘object’ confuse you. It has nothing to do with anything object oriented. ‘Object files’ are just binary code with some metadata in a particular format - in our case ELF. Later, we’ll take this file and use it to build our OS.

## Summary

Congratulations! This is the first step towards building an operating system. We learned about the boot process, the GRUB bootloader, and the Multiboot specification. We wrote a Multiboot-compliant header file in assembly code, and used nasm to create an object file from it.

Next, we’ll write the actual code that prints “Hello world” to the screen.