# Hello, world!

Now that we’ve got the headers out of the way, let’s do the traditional first program: Hello, world!

## The smallest kernel

Our hello world will be just 20 lines of assembly code. Let’s begin. Open a file called boot.asm and put this in it:

start:
hlt


You’ve seen the name: form before: it’s a label. This lets us name a line of code. We’ll call this label start, which is the traditional name. GRUB will use this convention to know where to begin.

The hlt statement is our first bit of ‘real’ assembly. So far, we had just been declaring data. This is actual, executable code. It’s short for ‘halt’. In other words, it ends the program.

By giving this line a label, we can call it, sort of like a function. That’s what GRUB does: “Call the function named start.” This function has just one line: stop.

Unlike many other languages, you’ll notice that there’s no way to say if this ‘function’ takes any arguments or not. We’ll talk more about that later.

This code won’t quite work on its own though. We need to do a little bit more bookkeeping first. Here’s the next few lines:

global start

section .text
bits 32
start:
hlt


Three new bits of information. The first:

global start


This says “I’m going to define a label start, and I want it to be available outside of this file.” If we don’t say this, GRUB won’t know where to find its definition. You can kind of think of it like a ‘public’ annotation in other languages.

section .text


We saw section briefly, but I told you we’d get to it later. The place where we get to it is at the end of this chapter. For the moment, all you need to know is this: code goes into a section named .text. Everything that comes after the section line is in that section, until another section line.

bits 32


GRUB will boot us into protected mode, aka 32-bit mode. So we have to specify that directly. Our Hello World will only be in 32 bits. We’ll transition from 32-bit mode to 64-bit mode in the next chapter, but it’s a bit involved. So let’s just stay in protected mode for now.

That’s it! We could theoretically stop here, but instead, let’s actually print the “Hello world” text to the screen. We’ll start off with an ‘H’:

global start

section .text
bits 32
start:
mov word [0xb8000], 0x0248 ; H
hlt


This new line is the most complicated bit of assembly we’ve seen yet. There’s a lot packed into this little line.

The first important bit is mov. This is short for move, and it sorta looks like this:

mov size place, thing


Oh, ; starts a comment, remember? So the ; H is just for us. I put this comment here because this line prints an H to the screen!

Yup, it does. Okay, so here’s why: mov copies thing into place. The amount of stuff it copies is determined by size.

;   size place      thing
;   |    |          |
;   V    V          V
mov word [0xb8000], 0x0248 ; H


“Copy one word: the number 0x0248 to ... some place.

The place looks like a number just like 0x0248, but it has square brackets [] around it. Those brackets are special. They mean “the address in memory located by this number.” In other words, we’re copying the number 0x0248 into the specific memory location 0xb8000. That’s what this line does.

Why? Well, we’re using the screen as a “memory mapped” device. Specific positions in memory correspond to certain positions on the screen. And the position 0xb8000 is one of those positions: the upper-left corner of the screen.

By the way...

"Memory mapping" is one of the fundamental techniques used in computer engineering to help the CPU know how to talk to all the different physical components of a computer. The CPU itself is just a weird little machine that moves numbers around. It's not of any use to humans on its own: it needs to be connected to devices like RAM, hard drives, a monitor, and a keyboard. The way the CPU does this is through a bus, which is a huge pipeline of wires connecting the CPU to every single device that might have data the CPU needs. There's one wire per bit (since a wire can store a 1 or a 0 at any given time). A 32-bit bus is literally 32 wires in parallel that run from the CPU to a bunch of devices like Christmas lights around a house.

There are two buses that we really care about in a computer: the address bus and the data bus. There's also a third signal that lets all the devices know whether the CPU is requesting data from an input (reading, like from the keyboard) or sending data to an output (writing, like to the monitor via the video card). The address bus is for the CPU to send location information, and the data bus is for the CPU to either write data to or read data from that location. Every device on the computer has a unique hard coded numerical location, or "address", literally determined by how the thing is wired up at the factory. In the case of an input/read operation, when it sends 0x1001A003 out on the address bus and the control signal notifies every device that it's a read operation, it's asking, "What is the data currently stored at location 0x1001A003?" If the keyboard happens to be identified by that particular address, and the user is pressing SPACE at this time, the keyboard says, "Oh, you're talking to me!" and sends back the ASCII code 0x00000020 (for "SPACE") on the data bus.

What this means is that memory on a computer isn't just representing things like RAM and your hard drive. Actual human-scale devices like the keyboard and mouse and video card have their own memory locations too. But instead of writing a byte to a hard drive for storage, the CPU might write a byte representing some color and symbol to the monitor for display. There's an industry standard somewhere that says video memory must live in the address range beginning 0xb8000. In order for computers to be able to work out of the box, this means that the BIOS needs to be manufactured to assume video lives at that location, and the motherboard (which is where the bus is all wired up) has to be manufactured to route 0xb8000 request to video card. It's kind of amazing this stuff works at all! Anyway, "memory mapped hardware", or "memory mapping" for short, is the name of this technique.

Now, we are copying 0x0248. Why this number? Well, it’s in three parts:

 __ background color
/  __foreground color
| /
V V
0 2 48 <- letter, in ASCII


We’ll start at the right. First, two numbers are the letter, in ASCII. H is 72 in ASCII, and 48 is 72 in hexadecimal: (4 * 16) + 8 = 72. So this will write H.

The other two numbers are colors. There are 16 colors available, each with a number. Here’s the table:

| Value | Color          |
|-------|----------------|
| 0x0   | black          |
| 0x1   | blue           |
| 0x2   | green          |
| 0x3   | cyan           |
| 0x4   | red            |
| 0x5   | magenta        |
| 0x6   | brown          |
| 0x7   | gray           |
| 0x8   | dark gray      |
| 0x9   | bright blue    |
| 0xA   | bright green   |
| 0xB   | bright cyan    |
| 0xC   | bright red     |
| 0xD   | bright magenta |
| 0xE   | yellow         |
| 0xF   | white          |


So, 02 is a black background with a green foreground. Classic. Feel free to change this up, use whatever combination of colors you want!

So this gives us a H in green, over black. Next letter: e.

global start

section .text
bits 32
start:
mov word [0xb8000], 0x0248 ; H
mov word [0xb8002], 0x0265 ; e
hlt


Lower case e is 65 in ASCII, at least, in hexadecimal. And 02 is our same color code. But you’ll notice that the memory location is different.

Okay, so we copied four hexadecimal digits into memory, right? For our H. 0248. A hexadecimal digit has sixteen values, so two of them are 32. Since we need one word for the colors, and one word for the H, that’s two words. Hence, if our first memory position is at 0, the second letter will start at 2.

This math gets easier the more often you do it. And we won’t be doing that much more of it. There is a lot of working with hex numbers in operating systems work, so you’ll get better as we practice.

With this, you should be able to get the rest of Hello, World. Go ahead and try if you want: each letter needs to bump the location twice, and you need to look up the letter’s number in hex.

If you don’t want to bother with all that, here’s the final code:

global start

section .text
bits 32
start:
mov word [0xb8000], 0x0248 ; H
mov word [0xb8002], 0x0265 ; e
mov word [0xb8004], 0x026c ; l
mov word [0xb8006], 0x026c ; l
mov word [0xb8008], 0x026f ; o
mov word [0xb800a], 0x022c ; ,
mov word [0xb800c], 0x0220 ;
mov word [0xb800e], 0x0277 ; w
mov word [0xb8010], 0x026f ; o
mov word [0xb8012], 0x0272 ; r
mov word [0xb8014], 0x026c ; l
mov word [0xb8016], 0x0264 ; d
mov word [0xb8018], 0x0221 ; !
hlt


Finally, now that we’ve got all of the code working, we can assemble our boot.asm file with nasm, just like we did with the multiboot_header.asm file:

$nasm -f elf64 boot.asm  This will produce a boot.o file. We’re almost ready to go! ## Linking it together Okay! So we have two different .o files: multiboot_header.o and boot.o. But what we need is one file with both of them. Our OS doesn’t have the ability to do anything yet, let alone load itself in two parts somehow. We just want one big binary file. Enter ‘linking’. If you haven’t worked in a compiled language before, you probably haven’t had to deal with linking before. Linking is how we’ll turn these two files into a single output: by linking them together. Open up a file called linker.ldand put this in it: ENTRY(start) SECTIONS { . = 1M; .boot : { /* ensure that the multiboot header is at the beginning */ *(.multiboot_header) } .text : { *(.text) } }  This is a ‘linker script’. It controls how our linker will combine these files into the final output. Let’s take it bit-by-bit: ENTRY(start)  This sets the ‘entry point’ for this executable. In our case, we called our entry point by the name people use: start. Remember? In boot.asm? Same name here. SECTIONS {  Okay! I’ve been promising you that we’d talk about sections. Everything inside of these curly braces is a section. We annotated parts of our code with sections earlier, and here, in this part of the linker script, we will describe each section by name and where it goes in the resulting output.  . = 1M;  This line means that we will start putting sections at the one megabyte mark. This is the conventional place to put a kernel, at least to start. Below one megabyte is all kinds of memory-mapped stuff. Remember the VGA stuff? It wouldn’t work if we mapped our kernel’s code to that part of memory... garbage on the screen!  .boot :  This will create a section named boot. And inside of it...  *(.multiboot_header)  ... goes every section named multiboot_header. Remember how we defined that section in multiboot_header.asm? It’ll be here, at the start of the boot section. That’s what we need for GRUB to see it.  .text :  Next, we define a text section. The text section is where you put code. And inside of it...  *(.text)  ... goes every section named .text. See how this is working? The syntax is a bit weird, but it’s not too bad. That’s it for our script! We can then use ld to link all of this stuff together: $ ld --nmagic --output=kernel.bin --script=linker.ld multiboot_header.o boot.o


Recall that on Mac OS X you will want to use the linker we installed to ~/opt and not your system linker. For example, if you did not change any of the defaults in the installation script, this linker will be located at \$HOME/opt/bin/x86_64-pc-elf-ld.

By running this command, we do a few things:

--nmagic


TODO: https://github.com/intermezzOS/book/issues/30

--output=kernel.bin


This sets the name of our output file. In our case, that’s kernel.bin. We’ll be using this file in the next step. It’s our whole kernel!

--script=linker.ld


multiboot_header.o boot.o

Finally, we pass all the .o files we want to link together.
That’s it! We’ve now got our kernel in the kernel.bin file. Next, we’re going to make an ISO out of it, so that we can load it up in QEMU.